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Irregular verbs


What are irregular verbs?

Regular verbs have ed at the end of the simple past and past participle forms:

Base verb + ed

Examples of regular verbs:

Infinitive Simple past Past participle
play played played
visit visited visited
work worked worked

In contrast to the above examples of regular verbs, irregular verbs are verbs which don't follow the above pattern of conjugation.

Irregular verbs

Irregular verb forms can not be predicted, that's why you should learn them by heart. The best way to deal with them is as follows:

  • Use them in appropriate contexts (in your writing or in your conversation)
  • Write down examples in your exercise book.
  • Always keep a list of irregular verbs at your disposal. (Note that most language books include a section at the end for irregular verbs.)

A list of irregular verbs

Infinitive Simple Past Tense Past Participle
awake awoke awoken
be was, were been
bear bore born
beat beat beat
become became become
begin began begun
bend bent bent
beset beset beset
bet bet bet
bid bid / bade bid / bidden
bind bound bound
bite bit bitten
bleed bled bled
blow blew blown
break broke broken
breed bred bred
bring brought brought
broadcast broadcast broadcast
build built built
burn burned / burnt burned / burnt
burst burst burst
buy bought bought
cast cast cast
catch caught caught
choose chose chosen
cling clung clung
come came come
cost cost cost
creep crept crept
cut cut cut
deal dealt dealt
dig dug dug
dive dived / dove dived
do did done
draw drew drawn
dream dreamed / dreamt dreamed / dreamt
drive drove driven
drink drank drunk
eat ate eaten
fall fell fallen
feed fed fed
feel felt felt
fight fought fought
find found found
fit fit fit
flee fled fled
fling flung flung
fly flew flown
forbid forbade forbidden
forget forgot forgotten
forego (forgo) forewent foregone
forgive forgave forgiven
forsake forsook forsaken
freeze froze frozen
get got gotten
give gave given
go went gone
grind ground ground
grow grew grown
hang hung hung
hear heard heard
hide hid hidden
hit hit hit
hold held held
hurt hurt hurt
keep kept kept
kneel knelt knelt
knit knit knit
know knew know
lay laid laid
lead led led
leap leaped / leapt leaped / leapt
learn learned / learnt learned / learnt
leave left left
lend lent lent
let let let
lie lay lain
light lighted/lit lighted
lose lost lost
make made made
mean meant meant
meet met met
misspell misspelled / misspelt misspelled / misspelt
mistake mistook mistaken
mow mowed mowed / mown
overcome overcame overcome
overdo overdid overdone
overtake overtook overtaken
overthrow overthrew overthrown
pay paid paid
plead pleaded / pled pleaded / pled
prove proved proved / proven
put put put
quit quit quit
read read read
rid rid rid
ride rode ridden
ring rang rung
rise rose risen
run ran run
saw sawed sawed / sawn
say said said
see saw seen
seek sought sought
sell sold sold
send sent sent
set set set
sew sewed sewed / sewn
shake shook shaken
shave shaved shaved / shaven
shear sheared / shore sheared / shorn
shed shed shed
shine shone shone
shoe shod shod
shoot shot shot
show showed showed / shown
shrink shrank shrunk
shut shut shut
sing sang sung
sink sank sunk
sit sat sat
sleep slept slept
slay slew slain
slide slid slid
sling slung slung
slit slit slit
smite smote smitten
sow sowed sowed / sown
speak spoke spoken
speed sped sped
spend spent spent
spill spilled / spilt spilled / spilt
spin spun spun
spit spit / spat spit
split split split
spread spread spread
spring sprang / sprung sprung
stand stood stood
steal stole stolen
stick stuck stuck
sting stung stung
stink stank stunk
stride strode stridden
strike struck struck
string strung strung
strive strove striven
swear swore sworn
sweep swept swept
swell swelled swelled / swollen 
swim swam swum
swing swung swung
take took taken
teach taught taught
tear tore torn
tell told told
think thought thought
thrive thrived / throve thrived
throw threw thrown
thrust thrust thrust
tread trod trodden
understand understood understood
uphold upheld upheld
upset upset upset
wake woke woken
wear wore worn
weave weaved / wove weaved / woven
wed wed wed
weep wept wept
wind wound wound
win won won
withhold withheld withheld
withstand withstood withstood
wring wrung wrung
write wrote written

Exercises on irregular verbs

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