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Reading Comprehension - Types of Occupation


Develop your reading skills. Read the following text about types of occupation and do the comprehension questions


What is an occupation?

Types of occupationAn occupation (also called a job) is an activity, often regular and often performed in exchange for payment ("for a living"). Many people have multiple jobs. for example, a person can begin a job by becoming an employee, volunteering, starting a business, etc. The duration of a job may range from temporary (e.g., hourly odd jobs) to a lifetime (e.g., judges).

Job, profession, and career

An activity that requires a person's mental or physical effort is work (as in "a day's work"). If a person is trained for a certain type of job, they may have a profession (e.g. teacher, pilot, judge). Typically, a job would be a subset of someone's career. The latter term is much more general, referring to an individual's metaphorical "journey" through learning, work and other aspects of life. One way to differentiate between job and career is the fact that a career ends with retirement while a job ends with resignation.

Types of occupation

Many categorizations of jobs are possible.

Jobs can be categorized, by the hours per week, into:

  • Full-time employment in which a person works a minimum number of hours defined as such by his/her employer. Full-time employment often comes with benefits that are not typically offered to the workers of other types of jobs. Examples of these benefits include annual leave, sick leave, and health insurance.
  • Part-time jobs simply involve working fewer hours in a week than a full-time job.
  • Day job refers to a job you do to earn money so that you can do something else that you prefer but that does not pay you much money. For example, many starting actors have day jobs to make ends meet.

Jobs can be also classified as:

  • temporary,
  • odd jobs,
  • seasonal,
  • self-employment,
  • consulting,
  • or contract employment.

Another categorization of jobs distinguishes between paid jobs (e.g. teacher, pilot) and unpaid jobs(e.g. housework, volunteering, mentoring) or between jobs that require specific training and those that require an academic degree.

Jobs can be further categorized by the level of experience required:

  • Entry level which refers to is a job that is normally designed or designated for recent graduates of a given discipline and typically does not require prior experience in the field or profession.
  • The internship which refers to a period of work experience offered by an organization for a limited period of time. Many entry-level jobs are part-time and do not include employee benefits.
  • Cooperative Education (also called co-op) provides academic credit for structured job experience. It falls under the umbrella of work-integrated learning by alternating a school term with a work term in a structured manner.

Another type of jobs is referred to as moonlighting. It is the practice of holding an additional job or jobs, often at night, in addition to one's main job, usually to earn extra income. A person who moonlights may have little time left for sleep or leisure activities.

Source: Wikipedia

Comprehension:

  1. All types of jobs are done in return of a pay.
    a. True
    b. False
  2. The terms job and career have the same meaning.
    a. True
    b. False
  3. A day job is done only to earn just enough money to live on.
    a. True
    b. False
  4. Cooperative education is designed for recent graduates.
    a. True
    b. False

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