Linking Words

Linking words

Like other languages, English has a lot of cohesive or transitional devices and linking words that can be used to express and join ideas.

1. Expressing addition

To add information, you can use these expressions:


in addition - as well as - moreover - what is more - not only...but also... - furthermore - besides - also - too - and...

  • If the project fails this will have terrible consequences not only on our department but also on the whole organization
  • John's grades are terrible because he has been so lazy these days. In addition to this, his relationship with his parents got worse.
  • The report is badly written. Moreover, it's inaccurate.

2. Expressing contrast

To express contrast, you can use these expressions:


although - even though - in spite of / despite - however - yet - nevertheless - nonetheless - on the contrary - whereas - on the one hand ...but on the other hand... - conversely - but...

  • Brain drain has terrible consequences on the developing countries. Nevertheless, nothing has been done to solve the problem or at least reduce its negative effects.
  • In spite of / despite Fred's old age, he goes jogging every morning.
  • Although she's very nice, her classmates hate her.
  • They have got two children, a boy and a girl. The boy takes after his father whereas the girl takes after the mother.

3. Expressing cause and effect

To express cause and effect, you can use these expressions:


consequently - as a consequence - as a result - therefore - because of this - for this reason - because - since - as - for - due to - owing to

  • She remained silent, for she was so depressed to talk.
  • We can't go to Sue's party because we'll be busy working on our project.
  • The plane was delayed because of the foggy weather.
  • He had spent most of his time hanging around instead of revising his lessons. Consequently, he had a lot of trouble answering the exam questions.


5. Expressing purpose

To express purpose use the following words:


in order to - in order not to - so as to - so as not to - to - not to

  • She wakes up early in order to be on time to work.
  • They visited him so as to offer their condolences for the death of his wife
  • He helped the new policewoman so as not to fail in her first mission.

4. Summarizing

To summarize, you can use the following expressions:


in conclusion - to conclude - to sum up - in a nutshell - in brief - in short - all in all - everything considered...