Reading Comprehension - Ancient Egypt Civilization

Develop your reading skills. Read the following text and do the comprehension questions

Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt CivilizationAncient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, which followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3150 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Menes. The history of ancient Egypt occurred in a series of stable Kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods:

  • The Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age,
  • The Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age
  • The New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age.

The rise of the Ancient Egyptian civilization

Egypt reached the pinnacle of its power in the New Kingdom, during the Ramesside period, where it rivaled the Hittite Empire, Assyrian Empire, and Mitanni Empire

The success of ancient Egyptian civilization came partly from its ability to adapt to the conditions of the Nile River valley for agriculture. The predictable flooding and controlled irrigation of the fertile valley produced surplus crops, which supported a more dense population, and social development and culture. The development of ancient Egypt was also due to a very advanced system of administration. The contributions of ancient Egypt include:

  • The administration sponsored mineral exploitation of the valley and surrounding desert regions.
  • The early development of an independent writing system.
  • The organization of collective construction and agricultural projects.
  • Trade with surrounding regions.

The ancient Egyptians also had a military intended to defeat foreign enemies and assert Egyptian dominance.

Motivating and organizing the administrative activities was a bureaucracy of elite scribes, religious leaders, and administrators under the control of a pharaoh, who ensured the cooperation and unity of the Egyptian people in the context of an elaborate system of religious beliefs. This system of administration resulted in outstanding achievements. These include:

  • The quarrying.
  • Construction techniques that supported the building of monumental pyramids, temples, and obelisks.
  • A system of mathematics,
  • A practical and effective system of medicine.
  • Irrigation systems and agricultural production techniques.
  • The first known planked boats.
  • Egyptian faience.
  • Glass technology.
  • New forms of literature.
  • The earliest known peace treaty, made with the Hittites.

Ancient Egypt legacy

Egypt left a lasting legacy. Its art and architecture were widely copied, and its antiquities carried off to far corners of the world. Its monumental ruins have inspired the imaginations of travelers and writers for centuries. A new-found respect for antiquities and excavations in the early modern period by Europeans and Egyptians led to the scientific investigation of Egyptian civilization and a greater appreciation of its cultural legacy.

Decline of ancient Egypt

After reaching the pinnacle of its power in the New Kingdom, during the Ramesside period, ancient Egypt entered a period of slow decline. Egypt was invaded or conquered by a succession of foreign powers, such as the Canaanites/Hyksos, Libyans, the Nubians, the Assyrians, Babylonians, the Achaemenid Persians, and the Macedonians in the Third Intermediate Period and the Late Period of Egypt. In the aftermath of Alexander the Great's death, one of his generals, Ptolemy Soter, established himself as the new ruler of Egypt. This Greek Ptolemaic Kingdom ruled Egypt until 30 BC, when, under Cleopatra, it fell to the Roman Empire and became a Roman province.

Source: Wikipedia


  1. The history of ancient Egypt was characterized by complete stability.
    a. True
    b. False
  2. Agriculture and a very developed system of administration were essential factors in the success of ancient Egypt civilization.
    a. True
    b. False
  3. The Middle Kingdom was the last powerful period in the history of ancient Egypt.
    a. True
    b. False
  4. The Greeks had ruled Egypt before it fell under the rule of the Romans.
    a. True
    b. False

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