What is an abbreviation?

An abbreviation is a shortened word used mainly in writing to represent the complete form.

List of commonly used abbreviations

  • A.D. = anno Domini, "in the year of the Lord"
  • A.M. = Ante Meridiem, "before midday"
  • cf. = confer, "bring together" and hence "compare"
  • B.A. = Bachelor of Arts
  • B.S. - Bachelor of Science
  • M.A. = Magister Artium, Master of Arts
  • e.g. = exempli gratia, 'for example'
  • et al. = et alii, "and others", "and co-workers"
  • etc. = et cetera, "and the others", "and other things", "and the rest"
  • i.a. = inter alia, "among other things".
  • ibid. = ibidem, "in the same place (book, etc.)"
  • i.e. = id est, 'that is'
  • id. = idem, "the same (man)"
  • N.B. = nota bene, "note well"
  • Ph. D. = Philosophi√¶ Doctor, "Teacher of Philosophy"
  • P.M. = Post Meridiem, "after midday"
  • S.O.S. = si opus sit, "if there is need", "if occasion require", "if necessary"
  • vs. = versus, "against"

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