Robert Gagne

Robert Gagné’s nine events of learning

Robert Gagné

Robert Mills Gagné was an American educational psychologist. In his book Conditions of Learning he developed studies about what he considered to be good instruction. Robert Gagné first worked for the air force with pilot training. One of Gagné’s main contribution was  the model of “Nine Events of Instruction”

Nine Events of Instruction

Gagné created a nine-step process called the “Events of Instruction” which are closely related to the learning process and lead to different learning outcomes. These events are the following:

  1. Gain attention
    Capture the attention of learners by asking questions or presenting new situation. The idea is to grab their attention.
  2. Inform learner of objectives
    Describe the objectives of a lesson, state what the learners will be able to perform and how they will be able to use the knowledge.
  3. Stimulate prior learning
    Build on what the learner’s already know. Start from previous relevant experience, concepts, knowledge to correlate it with new information.
  4. Present stimulus material
    Display new content which must be chunked, explained, then demonstrated
  5. Provide learner guidance
    Give instructions on how to learn. Assist learners for better learning.
  6. Elicit performance
    Learners practice in order to do something with the newly acquired behavior, skills, or knowledge.and demonstrate learning.
  7. Provide feedback
    Provide specific, immediate feedback on learner’s performance, reinforcing and correcting errors.
  8. Assess performance
    Test to determine to what extent the new knowledge has been mastered.
  9. Enhance retention and transfer
    Provide similar problem situations and encourage learners to transfer their newly acquired knowledge to novel situations.


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3 Responses

  1. In thinking about my own classroom teaching style, I seem to do most of these steps in one way or another for my test-prep classes, which seem ideally suited for these 9 steps of learning. For example, today served as both a chance for new students to do Step 3 (Utilize prior learning) which returning students are in Steps 8 & 9 (Retention & Transfer)–they all took a 60-minute TOEFL reading test. It also seems to do Step 1 for everyone! 🙂

    Tomorrow we can then come together and do Step 7, talking about what was difficult, what they learning about their reading skills, testing skills, and the stress of the test in general.

  2. lizzie says:

    Wow I hav realy learnt wonderful thing from these 9 steps although still a teacher in the oven but by Gods grace will use them effectively. Thank you.

  3. Abdullah says:

    Good.very provided me more information what i knew.

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