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Nobel Prize- List of Nobel Prize Laureates

Nobel Prize

The Nobel Prizes are awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Swedish Academy, the Karolinska Institute, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals and organizations who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. They were established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel, which dictates that the awards should be administered by the Nobel Foundation.

As of 2008, 789 individuals and 20 organizations have been awarded a Nobel Prize, including 62 winners of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. Four Nobel laureates were not permitted by their governments to accept the Nobel Prize. Adolf Hitler forbade three Germans, Richard Kuhn (Chemistry, 1938), Adolf Butenandt (Chemistry, 1939), and Gerhard Domagk (Physiology or Medicine, 1939), from accepting their Nobel Prizes, and the government of the Soviet Union pressured Boris Pasternak (Literature, 1958) to decline his award. Two Nobel laureates, Jean-Paul Sartre (Literature, 1964) and Lê Ðức Thọ (Peace, 1973), declined the award; Sartre declined the award as he declined all official honors, and Lê declined the award due to the situation Vietnam was in at the time. Six laureates have received more than one prize; of the six, the International Committee of the Red Cross has received the Nobel Peace Prize three times, more than any other. Among the 809 Nobel Laureates, 35 Nobel laureates have been women; the first woman to win a Nobel Prize was Marie Curie, who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1903. In years in which the Nobel Prize is not awarded due to external events or a lack of nominations, the prize money is returned to the funds delegated to the relevant prize. The Nobel Prize was not awarded between 1940 and 1942 due to the outbreak of World War II.

Laureates

Year   Physics   Chemistry   Physiology
or Medicine  
Literature   Peace   Economics  
1901 Röntgen, Wilhelm Conrad van 't Hoff, Jacobus H von Behring, Emil Prudhomme, Sully Dunant, Henry
Passy, Frédéric
1902 Lorentz, Hendrik A.;
Zeeman, Pieter
Fischer, Hermann Emil Ross, Ronald Mommsen, Theodor Ducommun, Élie
Gobat, Albert
1903 Becquerel, Henri
Curie, Pierre;
Curie, Marie
Arrhenius, Svante Finsen, Niels Ryberg Bjørnson, Bjørnstjerne Cremer, Randal
1904 Rayleigh, Lord Ramsay, William Pavlov, Ivan Petrovich Mistral, Frédéric
Echegaray, José
Institut de Droit International
1905 Lenard, Philipp von Baeyer, Adolf Koch, Robert Sienkiewicz, Henryk von Suttner, Bertha
1906 Thomson, J. J Moissan, Henri Golgi, Camillo;
Ramón y Cajal, Santiago
Carducci, Giosuè Roosevelt, Theodore
1907 Michelson, Albert A Buchner, Eduard Laveran, Charles Louis Alphonse Kipling, Rudyard Moneta, Ernesto Teodoro;
Renault, Louis
1908 Lippmann, Gabriel Rutherford, Ernes Mechnikov, Ilya Ilyich;
Ehrlich, Paul
Eucken, Rudolf Christoph Arnoldson, Klas Pontus;
Bajer, Fredrik
1909 Braun, Ferdinand;
Marconi, Guglielmo
Ostwald, Wilhelm Kocher, Emil Theodor Lagerlöf, Selma Beernaert, Auguste Marie François;
d'Estournelles de Constant, Paul-Henri-Benjamin
1910 van der Waals, Johannes Diderik Wallach, Otto Kossel, Albrecht Heyse, Paul International Peace Bureau
1911 Wien, Wilhelm Curie, Marie Gullstrand, Allvar Maeterlinck, Maurice Asser, Tobias Michael Carel;
Fried, Alfred Hermann
1912 Dalén, Gustaf Grignard, Victor;
Sabatier, Paul
Carrel, Alexis Hauptmann, Gerhart Root, Elihu
1913 Onnes, Heike Kamerlingh Werner, Alfred Richet, Charles Tagore, Rabindranath La Fontaine, Henri
1914 von Laue, Max Richards, Theodore William Bárány, Robert None None
1915 Bragg, William Henry;
Bragg, William Lawrence
Willstätter, Richard Martin None Rolland, Romain None
1916 None None None von Heidenstam, Verner None
1917 Barkla, Charles Glover None None Gjellerup, Karl Adolph;
Pontoppidan, Henrik
International Committee of the Red Cross
1918 Planck, Max Haber, Fritz None None None
1919 Stark, Johannes None Bordet, Jules Spitteler, Carl Wilson, Woodrow
1920 Guillaume, Charles Edouard Nernst, Walther Herman Krogh, August Hamsun, Knut Bourgeois, Léon
1921 Einstein, Albert Soddy, Frederick None France, Anatole Branting, Hjalmar;
Lange, Christian Lous
1922 Bohr, Niels Aston, Francis William Hill, Archibald;
Meyerhof, Otto Fritz
Benavente, Jacinto Nansen, Fridtjof
1923 Millikan, Robert A. Pregl, Fritz Banting, Frederick;
Macleod, John James Richard
Yeats, William Butler None
1924 Siegbahn, Manne None Einthoven, Willem Reymont, Władysław None
1925 Franck, James;
Hertz, Gustav
Zsigmondy, Richard Adolf None Shaw, George Bernard Chamberlain, Austen;
Dawes, Charles G.
1926 Perrin, Jean Baptiste Svedberg, Theodor Fibiger, Johannes Andreas Grib Deledda, Grazia Briand, Aristide;
Stresemann, Gustav
1927 Compton, Arthur H.;
Wilson, Charles Thomson Rees
Wieland, Heinrich Otto Wagner-Jauregg, Julius Bergson, Henri Buisson, Ferdinand;
Quidde, Ludwig
1928 Richardson, Owen Willans Windaus, Adolf Otto Reinhold Nicolle, Charles Undset, Sigrid None
1929 de Broglie, Louis Harden, Arthur;
von Euler-Chelpin, Hans
Eijkman, Christiaan;
Hopkins, Frederick Gowland
Mann, Thomas Kellogg, Frank B.
1930 Raman, Venkata Fischer, Hans Landsteiner, Karl Lewis, Sinclair Söderblom, Nathan
1931 None Bosch, Carl;
Bergius, Friedrich
Warburg, Otto Heinrich Karlfeldt, Erik Axel Addams, Jane;
Butler, Nicholas Murray
1932 Heisenberg, Werner Langmuir, Irving Sherrington, Charles Scott;
Adrian, Edgar Douglas
Galsworthy, John None
1933 Schrödinger, Erwin;
Dirac, Paul A.M.
None Morgan, Thomas Hunt Bunin, Ivan Angell, Norman
1934 None Urey, Harold Clayton Whipple, George;
Minot, George;
Murphy, William P.
Pirandello, Luigi Henderson, Arthur
1935 Chadwick, James Joliot-Curie, Frédéric;
Joliot-Curie, Irene
Spemann, Hans None von Ossietzky, Carl
1936 Hess, Victor F.;
Anderson, Carl D.
Debye, Peter Dale, Henry Hallett;
Loewi, Otto
O'Neill, Eugene Lamas, Carlos Saavedra
1937 Davisson, Clinton;
Thomson, George Paget
Haworth, Walter;
Karrer, Paul
Szent-Györgyi, Albert du Gard, Roger Martin Chelwood, Viscount, Cecil of
1938 Fermi, Enrico Kuhn, Richard Heymans, Corneille Buck, Pearl S. Nansen International Office For Refugees
1939 Lawrence, Ernest Butenandt, Adolf;
Ružička, Lavoslav
Domagk, Gerhard Sillanpää, Frans Eemil None
1940 None None None None None
1941 None None None None None
1942 None None None None None
1943 Stern, Otto de Hevesy, George Dam, Henrik;
Doisy, Edward Adelbert
None None
1944 Rabi, Isidor Isaac Hahn, Otto Erlanger, Joseph;
Gasser, Herbert Spencer
Jensen, Johannes Vilhelm International Committee of the Red Cross
1945 Pauli, Wolfgang Virtanen, Artturi Ilmari Fleming, Alexander;
Chain, Ernst Boris;
Florey, Howard Walter
Mistral, Gabriela Hull, Cordell
1946 Bridgman, Percy W. Sumner, James B.;
Northrop, John Howard;
Stanley, Wendell Meredith
Muller, Hermann Joseph Hesse, Hermann Balch, Emily Greene;
Mott, John
1947 Appleton, Edward V. Robinson, Robert Cori, Carl Ferdinand;
Cori, Gerty Theresa;
Houssay, Bernardo
Gide, André Friends Service Council;
American Friends Service Committee
1948 Blackett, Patrick M.S. Tiselius, Arne Müller, Paul Hermann Eliot, T. S. None
1949 Yukawa, Hideki Giauque, William Hess, Walter Rudolf;
Moniz, António Egas
Faulkner, William Orr, John Boyd
1950 Powell, Cecil Diels, Otto;
Alder, Kurt
Hench, Philip Showalter;
Kendall, Edward Calvin;
Reichstein, Tadeus
Russell, Bertrand Bunche, Ralph
1951 Cockcroft, John;
Walton, Ernest T.S.
McMillan, Edwin;
Seaborg, Glenn T.
Theiler, Max Lagerkvist, Pär Jouhaux, Léon
1952 Bloch, Felix;
Purcell, Edward M.
Martin, Archer John Porter;
Synge, Richard Laurence Millington
Waksman, Selman Mauriac, François Schweitzer, Albert
1953 Zernike, Frits Staudinger, Hermann Krebs, Hans Adolf;
Lipmann, Fritz Albert
Churchill, Winston Marshall, George
1954 Born, Max;
Bothe, Walther
Pauling, Linus Enders, John Franklin;
Robbins, Frederick Chapman;
Weller, Thomas Huckle
Hemingway, Ernest United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
1955 Lamb, Willis E.;
Kusch, Polykarp
du Vigneaud, Vincent Theorell, Hugo Laxness, Halldór None
1956 Bardeen, John;
Brattain, Walter H.;
Shockley, William B.
Hinshelwood, Cyril Norman;
Semenov, Nikolay Nikolaevich
Cournand, André Frédéric;
Forssmann, Werner;
Richards, Dickinson W.
Jiménez, Juan Ramón None
1957 Yang, Chen Ning;
Lee, Tsung-Dao
Todd, Lord (Alexander R.) Bovet, Daniel Camus, Albert Pearson, Lester B.
1958 Cherenkov, Pavel A.;
Frank, Il´ja M.;
Tamm, Igor Y.
Sanger, Frederick Beadle, George Wells;
Tatum, Edward Lawrie;
Lederberg, Joshua
Pasternak, Boris Pire, Georges
1959 Segrè, Emilio;
Chamberlain, Owen
Heyrovský, Jaroslav Kornberg, Arthur;
Ochoa, Severo
Quasimodo, Salvatore Noel-Baker, Philip J.
1960 Glaser, Donald A. Libby, Willard Burnet, Frank Macfarlane;
Medawar, Peter
Perse, Saint-John Lutuli, Albert
1961 Hofstadter, Robert;
Mössbauer, Rudolf
Calvin, Melvin von Békésy, Georg Andrić, Ivo Hammarskjöld, Dag
1962 Landau, Lev Perutz, Max;
Kendrew, John
Crick, Francis;
Watson, James D.;
Wilkins, Maurice
Steinbeck, John Pauling, Linus
1963 Wigner, Eugene;
Goeppert-Mayer, Maria;
Jensen, J. Hans D.
Ziegler, Karl;
Natta, Giulio
Eccles, John Carew;
Hodgkin, Alan Lloyd;
Huxley, Andrew
Seferis, Giorgos International Committee of the Red Cross;
League of Red Cross societies
1964 Townes, Charles H.;
Basov, Nicolay G.;
Prokhorov, Aleksandr M.
Hodgkin, Dorothy Crowfoot Bloch, Konrad Emil;
Lynen, Feodor Felix Konrad
Sartre, Jean-Paul King, Jr., Martin Luther
1965 Tomonaga, Sin-Itiro;
Schwinger, Julian;
Feynman, Richard P.
Woodward, Robert Burns Jacob, François;
Lwoff, André Michel;
Monod, Jacques
Sholokhov, Michail Aleksandrovich United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF)
1966 Kastler, Alfred Mulliken, Robert S. Rous, Francis Peyton;
Huggins, Charles Brenton
Agnon, Shmuel Yosef;
Sachs, Nelly
None
1967 Bethe, Hans Eigen, Manfred;
Norrish, Ronald George Wreyford;
Porter, George
Granit, Ragnar;
Hartline, Haldan Keffer;
Wald, George
Asturias, Miguel Ángel None
1968 Alvarez, Luis Onsager, Lars Holley, Robert W.;
Khorana, Har Gobind;
Nirenberg, Marshall Warren
Kawabata, Yasunari Cassin, René
1969 Gell-Mann, Murray Barton, Derek;
Hassel, Odd
Delbrück, Max;
Hershey, Alfred;
Luria, Salvador
Beckett, Samuel International Labour Organization Frisch, Ragnar Anton Kittil;
Tinbergen, Jan
1970 Alfvén, Hannes;
Néel, Louis
Leloir, Luis F. Axelrod, Julius;
von Euler, Ulf;
Katz, Bernard
Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr Borlaug, Norman Samuelson, Paul
1971 Gabor, Dennis Herzberg, Gerhard Sutherland, Jr., Earl Wilbur Neruda, Pablo Brandt, Willy Kuznets, Simon
1972 Bardeen, John;
Cooper, Leon Neil;
Schrieffer, Robert
Anfinsen, Christian B.;
Moore, Stanford;
Stein, William Howard
Edelman, Gerald;
Porter, Rodney Robert
Böll, Heinrich None Hicks, John;
Arrow, Kenneth
1973 Esaki, Leo;
Giaever, Ivar;
Josephson, Brian David
Fischer, Ernst Otto;
Wilkinson, Geoffrey
von Frisch, Karl;
Lorenz, Konrad;
Tinbergen, Nikolaas
White, Patrick Kissinger, Henry;
Thọ, Lê Ðức
Leontief, Wassily
1974 Ryle, Martin;
Hewish, Antony
Flory, Paul Claude, Albert;
de Duve, Christian;
Palade, George Emil
Johnson, Eyvind;
Martinson, Harry
MacBride, Seán;
Satō, Eisaku
Myrdal, Gunnar;
Hayek, Friedrich
1975 Bohr, Aage N.;
Mottelson, Ben R.;
Rainwater, James
Cornforth, John;
Prelog, Vladimir
Baltimore, David;
Dulbecco, Renato;
Temin, Howard Martin
Montale, Eugenio Sakharov, Andrei Kantorovich, Leonid;
Koopmans, Tjalling
1976 Richter, Burton;
Ting, Samuel C.C.
Lipscomb, William Blumberg, Baruch Samuel;
Gajdusek, Daniel Carleton
Bellow, Saul Williams, Betty;
Corrigan, Mairead
Friedman, Milton
1977 Anderson, Philip Warren;
Mott, Sir Nevill F.;
van Vleck, John H.
Prigogine, Ilya Guillemin, Roger;
Schally, Andrew;
Yalow, Rosalyn Sussman
Aleixandre, Vicente Amnesty International Ohlin, Bertil;
Meade, James
1978 Kapitsa, Pyotr;
Penzias, Arno;
Wilson, Robert Woodrow
Mitchell, Peter D. Arber, Werner;
Nathans, Daniel;
Smith, Hamilton O.
Singer, Isaac Bashevis Sadat, Anwar El;
Begin, Menachem
Simon, Herbert
1979 Glashow, Sheldon;
Salam, Abdus;
Weinberg, Steven
Brown, Herbert C.;
Wittig, Georg
Cormack, Allan McLeod;
Hounsfield, Godfrey
Elytis, Odysseas Teresa, Mother Schultz, Theodore;
Lewis, Arthur
1980 Cronin, James;
Fitch, Val
Berg, Paul;
Gilbert, Walter;
Sanger, Frederick
Benacerraf, Baruj;
Dausset, Jean;
Snell, George Davis
Miłosz, Czesław Esquivel, Adolfo Pérez Klein, Lawrence
1981 Bloembergen, Nicolaas;
Schawlow, Arthur L.;
Siegbahn, Kai M.
Fukui, Kenichi;
Hoffmann, Roald
Sperry, Roger W.;
Hubel, David H.;
Wiesel, Torsten N.
Canetti, Elias United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees Tobin, James
1982 Wilson, Kenneth G. Klug, Aaron Bergström, Sune;
Samuelsson, Bengt I.;
Vane, John Robert
Márquez, Gabriel García Myrdal, Alva;
Robles, Alfonso García
Stigler, George
1983 Chandrasekhar, Subramanyan;
Fowler, William A.
Taube, Henry McClintock, Barbara Golding, William Wałęsa, Lech Debreu, Gérard
1984 Rubbia, Carlo;
van der Meer, Simon
Merrifield, Robert Bruce Jerne, Niels Kaj;
Köhler, Georges J. F.;
Milstein, César
Seifert, Jaroslav Tutu, Desmond Stone, Richard
1985 von Klitzing, Klaus Hauptman, Herbert A.;
Karle, Jerome
Brown, Michael Stuart;
Goldstein, Joseph L.
Simon, Claude International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War Modigliani, Franco
1986 Ruska, Ernst;
Binnig, Gerd;
Rohrer, Heinrich
Herschbach, Dudley R.;
Lee, Yuan T.;
Polanyi, John C.
Cohen, Stanley;
Levi-Montalcini, Rita
Soyinka, Wole Wiesel, Elie Buchanan, James M.
1987 Bednorz, J. Georg;
Müller, K. Alex
Cram, Donald J.;
Lehn, Jean-Marie;
Pedersen, Charles J.
Tonegawa, Susumu Brodsky, Joseph Arias, Óscar Solow, Robert
1988 Lederman, Leon M.;
Schwartz, Melvin;
Steinberger, Jack
Deisenhofer, Johann;
Huber, Robert;
Michel, Hartmut
Black, James W.;
Elion, Gertrude B.;
Hitchings, George H.
Mahfouz, Naguib United Nations Peace-Keeping Forces Allais, Maurice
1989 Ramsey, Norman F.;
Dehmelt, Hans G.;
Paul, Wolfgang
Altman, Sidney;
Cech, Thomas
Bishop, J. Michael;
Varmus, Harold E.
Cela, Camilo José Gyatso, Tenzin, the 14th Haavelmo, Trygve
1990 Friedman, Jerome I.;
Kendall, Henry W.;
Taylor, Richard E.
Corey, Elias James Murray, Joseph;
Thomas, E. Donnall
Paz, Octavio Gorbachev, Mikhail Markowitz, Harry;
Miller, Merton;
Sharpe, William Forsyth
1991 de Gennes, Pierre-Gilles Ernst, Richard R. Neher, Erwin;
Sakmann, Bert
Gordimer, Nadine Suu Kyi, Aung San Coase, Ronald
1992 Charpak, Georges Marcus, Rudolph A. Fischer, Edmond H.;
Krebs, Edwin G.
Walcott, Derek Menchú, Rigoberta Becker, Gary
1993 Hulse, Russell A.;
Taylor, Jr., Joseph H.Joseph H. Taylor, Jr.
Mullis, Kary;
Smith, Michael
Roberts, Richard J.;
Sharp, Phillip Allen
Morrison, Toni Mandela, Nelson;
de Klerk, Frederik Willem
Fogel, Robert;
North, Douglass
1994 Brockhouse, Bertram N.;
Shull, Clifford G.
Olah, George Andrew Gilman, Alfred G.;
Rodbell, Martin
Oe, Kenzaburo Arafat, Yasser;
Peres, Shimon;
Rabin, Yitzhak
Harsanyi, John;
Nash, John Forbes;
Selten, Reinhard
1995 Perl, Martin L.;
Reines, Frederick
Crutzen, Paul J.;
Molina, Mario J.;
Rowland, Frank Sherwood
Lewis, Edward B.;
Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane;
Wieschaus, Eric F.
Heaney, Seamus Rotblat, Joseph;
Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs
Lucas, Jr., Robert
1996 Lee, David M.;
Osheroff, Douglas D.;
Richardson, Robert Coleman
Curl Jr., Robert F.;
Kroto, Harold;
Smalley, Richard
Doherty, Peter C.;
Zinkernagel, Rolf M.
Szymborska, Wisława Belo, Carlos Filipe Ximenes;
Ramos-Horta, José
Mirrlees, James;
Vickrey, William
1997 Chu, Steven;
Cohen-Tannoudji, Claude;
Phillips, William D.
Boyer, Paul D.;
Walker, John E.;
Skou, Jens Christian
Prusiner, Stanley B. Fo, Dario International Campaign to Ban Landmines;
Williams, Jody
Merton, Robert C.;
Scholes, Myron
1998 Laughlin, Robert B.;
Störmer, Horst L.;
Tsui, Daniel C.
Kohn, Walter;
Pople, John
Furchgott, Robert F.;
Ignarro, Louis J.;
Murad, Ferid
Saramago, José Hume, John;
Trimble, David
Sen, Amartya
1999 Hooft, Gerardus 't;
Veltman, Martinus J.G.
Zewail, Ahmed Blobel, Günter Grass, Günter Médecins Sans Frontières Mundell, Robert
2000 Alferov, Zhores I.;
Kroemer, Herbert;
Kilby, Jack
Heeger, Alan J.;
MacDiarmid, Alan;
Shirakawa, Hideki
Carlsson, Arvid;
Greengard, Paul;
Kandel, Eric
Xingjian, Gao Jung, Kim Dae Heckman, James;
McFadden, Daniel
2001 Cornell, Eric A.;
Ketterle, Wolfgang;
Wieman, Carl E.
Knowles, William S.;
Noyori, Ryoji;
Sharpless, Karl Barry
Hartwell, Leland H.;
Hunt, Tim;
Nurse, Paul
Naipaul, V. S. United Nations;
Annan, Kofi
Akerlof, George;
Spence, Michael;
Stiglitz, Joseph E.
2002 Davis, Jr., Raymond;
Koshiba, Masatoshi;
Giacconi, Riccardo
Fenn, John Bennett;
Tanaka, Koichi;
Wüthrich, Kurt
Brenner, Sydney;
Horvitz, H. Robert;
Sulston, John E.
Kertész, Imre Carter, Jimmy Kahneman, Daniel;
Smith, Vernon L.
2003 Abrikosov, Alexei A.;
Ginzburg, Vitaly L.;
Leggett, Anthony J.
Agre, Peter;
MacKinnon, Roderick
Lauterbur, Paul;
Mansfield, Peter
Coetzee, J. M. Ebadi, Shirin Engle, Robert F.;
Granger, Clive
2004 Gross, David J.;
Politzer, H. David;
Wilczek, Frank
Ciechanover, Aaron;
Hershko, Avram;
Rose, Irwin
Axel, Richard;
Buck, Linda B.
Jelinek, Elfriede Maathai, Wangari Kydland, Finn E.;
Prescott, Edward C.
2005 Glauber, Roy J.;
Hall, John L.;
Hänsch, Theodor W.
Chauvin, Yves;
Grubbs, Robert H.;
Schrock, Richard R.
Marshall, Barry;
Warren, Robin
Pinter, Harold International Atomic Energy Agency;
ElBaradei, Mohamed
Aumann, Robert;
Schelling, Thomas
2006 Mather, John C.;
Smoot, George F.
Kornberg, Roger D. Fire, Andrew;
Mello, Craig
Pamuk, Orhan Yunus, Muhammad;
Phelps, Edmund
2007 Fert, Albert;
Grünberg, Peter
Ertl, Gerhard Capecchi, Mario;
Evans, Martin;
Smithies, Oliver
Lessing, Doris Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change;
Gore, Al
Hurwicz, Leonid;
Maskin, Eric;
Myerson, Roger
2008 Nambu, Yoichiro;
Kobayashi, Makoto;
Maskawa, Toshihide
Shimomura, Osamu;
Chalfie, Martin;
Tsien, Roger Y.
zur Hausen, Harald;
Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise;
Montagnier, Luc
Le Clézio, Jean-Marie Gustave Ahtisaari, Martti Krugman, Paul
2009 Kao, Charles K.;
Boyle, Willard S.;
Smith, George E.
Ramakrishnan, Venkatraman;
Steitz, Thomas A.;
Yonath, Ada E.
Blackburn, Elizabeth;
Greider, Carol W.;
Szostak, Jack W.
Müller, Herta Obama, Barack Ostrom, Elinor;
Williamson, Oliver E.
Year Physics Chemistry Physiology
or Medicine
Literature Peace Economics
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