Second Language Learning Difficulties
Second Language learners face so many difficulties mainly because of the negative interference of the mother tongue and the cultural differences.
Language transfer designates the interference of the mother tongue in second language learning. Learners apply knowledge from their native language to learn a second language. While this can help in understanding and using the target language, this can also hinder the proper internalization of the L2 (target language) rules, producing errors of syntax, vocabulary, and pronunciation. Learners are influenced by their L1 (mother tongue) in the following manners:
- They map their L1 grammatical patterns inappropriately onto the L2 as a result of syntactic differences between L1 and L2.
- They pronounce certain sounds incorrectly or with difficulty as a result of the difference in phonological systems.
- They confuse vocabulary items because they are misled by false friends (e.i. words or phrases that look or sound similar in both the mother tongue and the target language, but differ significantly in meaning.)
Linguistic interference can lead to correct language production when the mother tongue and the target language share many linguistic features. However, the transfer can result in errors when both languages differ.
Learners’ culture can be a barrier to second or foreign language learning. Cultural differences may cause confusion and cultural misunderstandings. Learners may have problems communicating with target native speakers because of cultural differences.
Learning a second language means learning to speak and comprehend it. But learners can’t reach a high level of proficiency unless they are able to use the target language appropriately in the context of the target culture. To reach a pragmatic and socio linguistic competence, learners should be able to make correct assumptions about what interlocutors are saying. When the L1 and L2 cultures share similar features the assumptions made contribute to the learning. However, when both cultures differ in so many aspects learning is at risk.
Implications in the classroom
Teachers must take into considerations the strategies learners use to learn a second language.
- Learners tend to use their linguistic knowledge of the mother tongue (and may be knowledge of other languages they have learned.)
- Learners try to transfer their cultural knowledge to make assumption when communicating in the target language.
- Teachers must spot and highlight those shared features that may contribute to the target language learning.
- Teachers must be cautious in error correction because errors may be the result of negative language transfer or incorrect assumptions held about the target culture.